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Higher Politics Political Theory. Re-cap. As a group you will be competing in a team quiz! The winner s will receive a prize!! This is based upon the Power, Authority, Legitimacy unit that we started before summer!. Power, Authority, legitimacy quiz!!. /9. Define the term ‘power’ 1 mark
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As a group you will be competing in a team quiz! The winners will receive a prize!! This is based upon the Power, Authority, Legitimacy unit that we started before summer!
Power, Authority, legitimacy quiz!! /9 • Define the term ‘power’ 1 mark • Define the term ‘authority’ 1 mark • Define the term ‘legitimacy’ 1 mark • Give an example of an individual or group which exercises power. 1 mark • Give an example of an individual or a group who has authority. 1 mark • Give an example of an individual or group who can be defined as legitimate. 1 mark • Give an example of an individual who has power but no authority. 1 mark • Give an example of an individual who has authority but no power. 1 mark • Give an example of individuals which arguably lack legitimacy in current UK politics. 1 mark
Power All politics is about power, who has it, what they do with it and how they get it. The use of power and its distribution within a state is central to politics. Political power is the ability, and the right, of a state to influence, manipulate and force people and events according to its will. Such authority requires obedience from the populace and may be established as a result of tradition, religious doctrine, charismatic leadership, a military coup or democratic and legal means. However, power can be exercised in different ways. Power is a form of domination or control that can force a person to obey another. It can also be viewed as a relationship in which one person has power over another: with this in mind we can categorise the way power is used.
What is Power? We are going to look at 6 types of power: • Political Power • Power Politics • Absolute Power • Power to Reward and Punish • Separation of Powers • Consensus
1. Political Power An election may take power to govern away from one political party and give it to different party. Power may be taken legitimately. Many regard democratic elections as being a legitimate method of deciding who has power. Power may be seized (taken) by way of a coup d'état: the armed seizure of power. Power is a double edged sword: if used badly by the state can cause conflict and disruption within a society; if used well, it can enable a society to co-operate and prosper.
2. Power Politics Power politics involves politicians using whatever cunning and dishonest methods they think are necessary, so long as they do not get caught, to achieve their aims. This type of political behaviour has come to be known as Machiavellian. Machiavelli was an Italian historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher and writer. His works have became very famous- The Prince. He has often been called the founder of modern political science. Machiavellianism
2. Power Politics Machiavelli, believed that in order to rule effectively, people should live in some kind of ’fear’of what might happen if they failed to obey the will of those in power. People, Machiavelli suggests, would betray a ruler who they were not fearful of it suited their best interests, because there would be little fear of punishment. He believed being a good politician AND a nice person was not necessary. However, rulers should not be overly cruel so as to become hated.
2. Power Politics Machiavelli examined the subject of the ‘mechanics of power’. He rejected the established medieval view that leaders were bound by a body of natural law and Christian ethics. Machiavelli argued that the advice to leaders to be merciful, liberal and loved was ideal in a world in which people were virtuous, but the problem was that the world was not like that. He argued that a leader could only survive by being forceful, cruel and by keeping his word only when it was to his advantage to do so. He believed that those who govern should do whatever it takes to stay in power. He believed ‘the wicked tended to win’
Agree/ Disagree? • Leaders cannot be effective leaders AND good people • Some lies are necessary to maintain a relationship • A bit of dishonesty/ corruption is ok to defend the country
3. Absolute Power Absolute power = full control of every aspect of citizens lives Absolute monarchies are those in which all power is given to or, as is more often the case, taken by, the monarch. Thomas Hobbes proposed that the state should hold full and absolute power. Leviathan. He believed that subjects of the King/ Leader must submit in all things to the commands of the crown i.e. do whatever the ruler says. A leader who has absolute power makes laws, interprets laws, and executes them for their own advantage. They share power with no-one . Examples – Hitler (Germany/ Europe), Stalin (Soviet Union)
King Charles I 1600-1649 Charles dissolved parliament three times between 1625 and 1629. In 1629, he dismissed parliament and resolved to rule alone. This forced him to raise revenue by non-parliamentary means which made him increasingly unpopular. Charles attempted to have five members of parliament arrested and in August 1642, raised the royal standard at Nottingham. Civil war began. Eventually the royalists were defeated. In 1646, Charles surrendered to the Scots, who handed him over to parliament. This 'Second Civil War' was over within a year with another royalist defeat by Parliamentarian general Oliver Cromwell. Convinced that there would never be peace while the king lived, a rump of radical MPs, including Cromwell, put him on trial for treason. He was found guilty and executed on 30 January 1649 outside the Banqueting House on Whitehall, London. Read more
4. Power to Reward and Punish Holding power over others inevitably means that the state will use it to reward and punish. People who have behaved bravely or served society for many years , are sometimes awarded an honour by the state, as public recognition of their good citizenship. Others are fined, imprisoned, and in some cases, executed by the state. Max Weber (1864-1920), a German Sociologist, saw the state as being defined by holding a monopoly on ‘legitimate violence’. The state controls you through power to punish & reward Political scientists argue over which is more effective ‘The Carrot or the Stick’ debate. Example – Nazi Germany ‘Strength Through Joy’ – Reward ‘Re-education Camp’ – Punishment
5. Separation of Powers Some societies, for example the United States of America, are able to confine and limit the right of the state to act, and thus, curtail (limit) their power. This is achieved by the use of a ‘written constitution’ and a ‘bill of rights’. A constitution is a set of rules and principles by which a state is governed. It sets out the powers given to the government and the legislative assembly. It describes the procedures to be used when electing their representatives and leaders. In many cases a constitution will contain the rights of citizens. A constitution can, therefore, limits the power the of statewithin a society.
6. Consensus The phrase: ’to find a political solution’is used in situations where politicians try to solve a problem in society, without anyone having to resort to conflict. The state acts as a referee, a peacemaker: using its power for the good of the nation. All societies consist of different groups of like-minded people, each with a different set of values and opinions. Good government uses its powers to help these groups find consensus (or agreement) where compromise on all sides can lead to a peaceful solution. This then means that the state does not have to use its powers violently in order to settle disputes.
Consensus examples Guernsey, Channel Islands Self- Governing British crown dependency. No party system – independent candidates No ministers – committees of 5 politicians Different independents work together to achieve best result Post War Consensus Some political historians have describes Britain's post WWII government as a consensus All parties worked together to improve Britain’s social and economic conditions Party loyalties largely side-lined to improve living conditions e.g. Conservatives did not oppose NHS 1945 (actually said they could run it better!) Ended with Thatcher in 1979
Different Types of Power Your Task Create a spider diagram containing one branch for each type of power Add explanations, key words and examples Add symbols/ pictures where possible • Political Power • Power Politics • Absolute Power • Power to Reward and Punish • Separation of Powers • Consensus
Check your UnderstandingDifferent Types of Power • What types of power are exercised in the United Kingdom? • What type of power is, in your opinion, the worst? Why? • What type of power is the best to have? Why?